Of late, there has been an explosive growth of cross-layer designs proposed for wireless networks. These designs break the layered structure to actively exploit the dependence between protocol layers in wireless networks. However, the large number of cross-layer designs creates serious coexistence issues. The violation of layered structure may not comply with restrictions that constrain the coexistence among many cross-layer designs and other network systems, causing significant issues, such as degraded performance, inconsistent distributed decision making, network partition, and instability. The objective of this project is to systematically and rigorously categorize and analyze coexistence restrictions of cross-layer designs in wireless networks. In this project, coexistence restrictions of various cross-layer designs are theoretically modeled and analyzed. Different kinds of coexistence restrictions are defined, the conditions for their occurrences and their impact on network operations are revealed, and methods to check coexistence issues are developed. The project also seeks restriction-compliant protocol design techniques. This project serves as a major effort in the understandings of cross-layer designs in wireless networks and is the pioneer in providing systematic analysis of coexistence restrictions of cross-layer designs. The result of this project can be used to evaluate cross-layer design limitations and potential problems. This will promote the acceptance of good cross-layer designs in real systems and prevent architecture failures in design integration. In addition, this project provides practical techniques for designing more compatible cross-layer systems. Ultimately, this will greatly enhance the flexibility and robustness of current and future wireless network systems.


  1. Yaling Yang (PI)
  2. Gao Bo (Ph.D.)
  3. Chuan Han(Ph.D.)
  4. Yujun Li(Ph.D.)
  5. Yanzhi Dou(Ph.D.)
  6. Kexiong Zeng(Ph.D.)
  7. Chang Liu (Ph.D.)
  8. Hannah Bowers (B.S.)
  9. Laci Sears (B.S.)

Related Publications

    1. Yanzhi Dou, Kexiong (Curtis) Zeng, He Li, Yaling Yang, Bo Gao, Kui Ren, Shaoqian Li, ”P2-SAS: Privacy-Preserving Centralized Dynamic Spectrum Access System”, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, v 35, n 1, p 173-187, 2017
    2. Chaowen Guan, Aziz Mohaisen, Zhi Sun, Fei Wei, Lu Su, Kui Ren and Yaling Yang, ”When Smart TV Meets CRN: Privacy-preserving Fine-grained Spectrum Access”, IEEE ICDCS, 2017
    3. Yanzhi Dou, He Li, Kexiong Zeng, Jinshan Liu, Yaling Yang, Bo Gao and Kui Ren. ”Preserving Incumbent Users’ Privacy in Exclusion-Zone-Based Spectrum Access Systems.”, IEEE ICDCS, 2017.
    4. Kexiong (Curtis) Zeng, Yuanchao Shu, Shinan Liu, Yanzhi Dou, Yaling Yang, ”A Practical GPS Location Spoofing Attack in Road Navigation Scenario” . ACM HotMobile, 2017
    5. Yanzi Dou, Kexiong Zeng, Yaling Yang, Danfeng Yao, MadeCR: Correlation-based Malware Detection for Cognitive Radio, Infocom 2015.
    6. Kexiong (Curtis) Zeng, Sreeraksha Kondaji Ramesh and Yaling Yang, "Location Spoofing Attack and Its Countermeasures in Database-Driven Cognitive Radio Networks", 2014 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS), October 2014.
    7. Bo Gao, Jung-Min Park, and Yaling Yang, "Uplink Soft Frequency Reuse for Self-Coexistence of Cognitive Radio Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Volume:13, Issue: 6, June 2014
    8. Bo Gao, Jung-Min Park, Yaling Yang, "Supporting Mobile Users in Database-Driven Opportunistic Spectrum Access", ACM Mobihoc 2014
    9. Kexiong (Curtis) Zeng, Sreeraksha Kondaji Ramesh and Yaling Yang. "Location Robustness in Database-Driven White Spaces Network", Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (Dyspan) , April 2014. (4-page poster paper)
    10. Bo Gao, Yaling Yang, and Jung-Min Park, "A Credit-Token-Based Spectrum Etiquette Framework for Coexistence of Heterogeneous Cognitive Radio Networks," IEEE INFOCOM 2014, Apr. 2014 (acceptance rate: 19.4%)
    11. Chuan Han and Yaling Yang, Understanding the Information Propagation Speed in Multihop Cognitive Radio Networks , IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, June 2013 (vol. 12 no. 6)
    12. Bo Gao, Jungmin Park, Yaling Yang, A Taxonomy of Coexistence Mechanisms for Heterogeneous Cognitive Radio Networks Operating in TV White Spaces , Wireless Communications Magazine, Aug 2012
    13. Bo Gao, Jung-Min Park, and Yaling Yang, "Uplink Soft Frequency Reuse for Self-Coexistence of Cognitive Radio Networks Operating in White-Space Spectrum , Infocom 2012
    14. Chuan Han and Yaling Yang, Compatibility between Three Well-known Broadcast Tree Construction Algorithms and Various Metrics, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.10, no.8, pp.1187-1199, Aug. 2011
    15. Yaling Yang, Yujun Li, Mengshu Hou, "Many-to-One Deliverability of Greedy Routing in 2-D Wireless Sensor Networks", Infocom 2011
    16. Chuan Han and Yaling Yang, "Information Propagation Speed Study in Multihop Cognitive Radio Networks", Infocom 2011 Miniconference
    17. Yujun Li and Yaling Yang, "Rules for Designing Routing Metrics for Greedy, Face and Combined-Greedy-Face Routing", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Volume 9 , Issue 4, Pages: 582-595, April 2010
    18. Chuan Han and Yaling Yang, "The Information Propagation Speed Upper Bound in Cognitive Radio Networks", IEEE Globecom 2010
    19. Yongxiang Peng, Yaling Yang, Xianliang Lu, and Xuyang Ding, "Coding-Aware Routing for Unicast Sessions in Wireless Mesh Networks", IEEE Globecom 2010
    20. Yujun Li and Yaling Yang, "Asymptotic Connectivity of Large-Scale Wireless Networks with a Log-Normal Shadowing Model", IEEE VTC 2010-Spring
    21. Chuan Han and Yaling Yang, Compatibility between Optimal Tree-based Broadcast Routing and Metric Design , IEEE Globecom 2009
    22. Yujun Li, Yaling Yang and Xianliang Lu, "Routing Metric Designs for Greedy, Face and Combined Greedy-Face Routing", IEEE Infocom 2009
    23. Yaling Yang and Jun Wang,Design Guidelines for Routing Metrics in Multihop Wireless Networks , Infocom 2008
    24. Yaling Yang Routing Metrics Design for Multihop Wireless Networks, Communication Networking Technology (CNT) Symposium under UKC (US-Korea Symposium), 2007 (invited paper)
    25. Yaling Yang, Jun Wang and Robin Kravets, ``Designing Routing Metrics for Mesh Networks'', IEEE Workshop on Wireless Mesh Networks (WiMesh), 2005 (invited paper).

    Education and Outreach Activity

    1. NSF REU summer camp 2014.

      Participants: Hannah Bowers and Laci Sears.

      Project focus: using deviation of component action correlation to detect malware in cognitive radio devices

    2. CESCA Outstanding Student Award Winner 2014: Bo Gao

    Broader Impact

    This project has analyzed and identified the key restrictions that different cross-layer designs may impose on one and another and provides essentially methods to formally verify and ensure that those restrictions are respected in the practical network systems. The areas that this project has brought benefits on includes network routing (which is in the essence of every network of today) and cognitive radio and software defined radio (which were named as one of the key technologies to solve the pressing spectrum shortage by US president recently). This project may also have an impact on cyber physical systems, as the techniques that we used for verifying network systems may also apply there. This project supports the research training of five Ph.D. students. Due to his excellent work, one of the Ph.D. students received the "Outstanding Student Award" from CESCA center in 2014, which is only given to two students this year among a total of 60~70 graduate students. This project also provides the training for under-represented undergraduate students in ECE fileds. Two undergraduate female students in the ECE area, one of them being african american origin, have worked on this project. Through this experience, they have gained valuable insights and experiences by working on state-of-art research project in networking area.